Linux: Monter un nouveau disque dur

Et oui, il faut un debut a tout. Comme je n’ai jamais  eu l’occasion d’ajouter un nouveau disque dur sur mes ordinateurs, je ne me suis pas interesse a cette fonctionnalitee jusqu’a present. Et ben, depuis mon interret pour Linux From Scratch, j’avoue que je risquerai de decouvrir plus de choses qui me seraient utile dans ma vie linuxienne.

I. Ajout d’un nouveau disque dur/d’une nouvelle partition

Verifier que votre nouveau disque est reconnu par l’OS.

root@debianlfs:~# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders, total 41943040 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000ad7c0

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048    40136703    20067328   83  Linux
/dev/sda2        40138750    41940991      901121    5  Extended
/dev/sda5        40138752    41940991      901120   82  Linux swap / Solaris

Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders, total 20971520 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/sdb doesn’t contain a valid partition table
root@debianlfs:~#

Le disque /dev/sdb n’a pas de partition, comme indique ci-dessus. Nous allons donc lui en creer un. Moi j’ai choisi fdisk pour le faire, sinon vous pouvez trouver une methode un peu plus graphique avec cfdisk ici.

root@debianlfs:~# fdisk /dev/sdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x0696187e.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won’t be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition’s system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders, total 20971520 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0696187e

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): p
Partition number (1-4, default 1):
First sector (2048-20971519, default 2048):
Using default value 2048
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-20971519, default 20971519):
Using default value 20971519

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders, total 20971520 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0696187e

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048    20971519    10484736   83  Linux

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
root@debianlfs:~#

Lister la table de partition:

root@debianlfs:~# cat /proc/partitions
major minor  #blocks  name

   8        0   20971520 sda
   8        1   20067328 sda1
   8        2          1 sda2
   8        5     901120 sda5
   8       16   10485760 sdb
   8       17   10484736 sdb1
root@debianlfs:~#

root@debianlfs:~# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders, total 41943040 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000ad7c0

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048    40136703    20067328   83  Linux
/dev/sda2        40138750    41940991      901121    5  Extended
/dev/sda5        40138752    41940991      901120   82  Linux swap / Solaris

Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
107 heads, 17 sectors/track, 11529 cylinders, total 20971520 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0696187e

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048    20971519    10484736   83  Linux
root@debianlfs:~#

II. Creer un systeme de fichiers sur la partition

root@debianlfs:~# mkfs -v -t ext4 /dev/sdb1
mke2fs 1.42.5 (29-Jul-2012)
fs_types for mke2fs.conf resolution: ‘ext4’
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
655360 inodes, 2621184 blocks
131059 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=2684354560
80 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
    32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632

Allocating group tables: done                           
Writing inode tables: done                           
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

root@debianlfs:~#

III. Monter la nouvelle partition

A partir d’ici, il faut choisir son point de montage. Le mien est celui propose par le livre Linux From Scratch, qui est: /mnt/lfs avec comme format de fichier l’EXT4.

root@debianlfs:~# export LFS=/mnt/lfs

root@debianlfs:~# mkdir -pv $LFS
mkdir: created directory `/mnt/lfs’

root@debianlfs:~# mount -v -t ext4 /dev/sdb1 $LFS
/dev/sdb1 on /mnt/lfs type ext4 (rw)
root@debianlfs:~#

Verifier ensuite les droits sur la nouvelle partition.

root@debianlfs:~# mount
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
udev on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,relatime,size=10240k,nr_inodes=63178,mode=755)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,size=51464k,mode=755)
/dev/disk/by-uuid/e78f726f-6437-4922-8d4c-d04539056d39 on / type ext3 (rw,relatime,errors=remount-ro,data=ordered)
tmpfs on /run/lock type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,size=5120k)
tmpfs on /run/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,size=283140k)
fusectl on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw,relatime)
vmware-vmblock on /run/vmblock-fuse type fuse.vmware-vmblock (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=0,group_id=0,default_permissions,allow_other)
/dev/sdb1 on /mnt/lfs type ext4 (rw,relatime,barrier=1,data=ordered)
root@debianlfs:~#

Si les droits sur la nouvelle partitions sont trop restrictifs (nosuid, nodev et/ou noatime), cette partition doit etre remontee.

Source:

Ajouter un nouveau disque dur sous linux
Linux from Scratch: Preparing a new partition